Shakespeare: Cymbeline (Cym-8)

(CM46-7: 44 cues). In OS (1998) 270-4 App. B: James Walker, and in AS3 (1998) 220-4 App C, John Caldwell discuss the provenance of the two songs 30 and 32 and other possible use of music. GPs ii 266 suggests music can be employed to allow time for costume change or for furniture to be moved about. Commentary on the two songs is also given in ME211-2. ‘Music is woven into the pattern of the play as a regenerative unifying and perfecting force’ (NN66). Nosworthy (AS) writes of the so-called ‘masque scene V iv, that the ‘vision… owes something to the masque, but the stage directions clearly show that it is not in itself masque.’

Furness in The New Variorum edition of the play (1913, pp. 374-9) summarises earlier critics’ opinions on the question of the authenticity of the scene, he himself describing it as ‘contemptible nonsense’. Defenders include G. Wilson Knight in Crown of Life 1947, pp. 68-202. Note also W. H. Auden’s comment on Cloten’s exploitation of music as an erotic stimulus (ALd 515-6). Singers in the cast: The Boy, Guiderius and Arviragus’. The New Penguin edition has ‘Music and Songs’ pp 147-9

act scene line Click here to find out more about suggested song
I iii 1 `[I pray you…sing, or express yourself in a more comfortable sort]
I i 109 The loathness to depart would grow. Adieu!] ‘Loath to depart’ motif
a) DO256-7 RAVENSCROFT Sing with thy mouth…loath to depart, canon à 4 Rd/ K 102; (kMP f57v) alternative title ‘Tell me John’; tune SB288; DO 245-7; ۞DO ii 37 i 28
b) DO257 DOWLAND Loath to depart, lute song, vocal line set to same text as a) P69 1595 (CH f9) ۞CmD vii 17/ lute/t (BO7v 23) ‘Loth to depart’; lute/tk JE11; lute/ kCW102/ K102-3; ۞Ld ii 12/ ۞DO ii 37 ii; gCR9; lute/tk DOWLAND D69; ۞Bre W18/ ۞OD iv 20/ ۞N17; opening 8 bar statement quoted in FARNABY attrib. kF230/ FAd17/ C173; ۞ChF2/ ۞MgN7; first strain PE82; rSATB/T Fg8; RAVENSCROFT Deuteromelia, round à 4 Rd
II ii 11 [The crickets sing]
iii 11-19 [I would this music would come. I am advised to give her music o’ mornings; they say it will penetrate]. Enter Musicians. [Come on, tune. If you can penetrate her with your fingering, so; we’ll try with tongue too…First, a very excellent good-conceited thing; after, a wonderful sweet air with admirable rich words to it] {Music} GPs ii 266-7 viol consort; cf Meyer English chamber music, pp 3-7
a) LF52-4: LUPO Fantasia à 3 (d-, tr-, b-viols) 29
b) (B262): FARNABY Toye played on viols; kF270/ MB xxiv 28; ۞Go2: 4/ ۞Gt10
c) (Fn59-60) a fancy or ricercar for viols: TISDALE Fantasia F295
d) ۞CamS14 HOLBORNE Last will and testament, recorder or viol consort (61a)
19-25 {Musician sings}. HARK, HARK, THE LARK AT HEAVEN’S GATE SINGS… 30
(SM45) strings on stage; (GPs ii 266) viol consort; (AS212-5) detailed comment LF53-6, 136; NS95-101/ CDh453 & (ML xii 1941, 32-5); (CU121); (PRMA lx (1945) 95-101) notes use of high voice here. (facsimiles): c1609 GB-Ob MS Don. c. 57 has been attributed to Robert JOHNSON H + figured bass (lute) AS (1955) 220; with unfigured bass line NC253; realizations: EL LS12 (ii 17): 20/ St18/ NA212/ PS201/ CM48-50/ HS2; ed. Roger Warren OS270-2/ CU4; ۞Am15/ ۞BroS36/ ۞CamS15/ ۞DO i 30/ ۞Eh7/ ۞Ge8/ ۞KyJ2/ ۞lG 15/ ۞MgM17/ ۞PaH1/ ۞Ph 1/ ۞WS11; rS + B + lute Jb2; HUME Ayres: kute songs 1619 no 10; arr.lyra viol gBG4a;melody and text DO184-6.
26-29 [So get you gone. If this penetrate, I will consider your music better; if it do not, it is a vice in her ears, which horse-hairs and calves’guts nor the voice of unpaved *eunuch (B262) i.e .here male falsetto) to boot, can never amend] Exeunt Musicians. Commentary ML xxii (1941) 32-5 and PMLA lx (1945) 95-101
37-38 [I have assailed her with musics, but she vouchsafes no notice].
III i 0 {Flourish}
iii 98; 107 {A hunting-horn sounds} [Hark, The game is roused!]; {A hunting-horn sounds} [The game is up]
iv 176 [If that his head have an ear in music]
v 0 {Flourish}
IV ii 49 [How like an angel he sings!]
187 Solemn music. MH140: speech with recorder consort. GPs ii 266 instrumental consort. B262: Aeolian harp/ muted strings/ brushing of harp strings 31
a) LF57-9: 1595 DOWLAND Lachrimae antiquae [i.e. no. 1 of the 7 Pavanes in the set of 21 pieces for 5 viols and lute] woodwind especially recorders or a small organ leading up to the singing of the dirge: 5 viols DA1/ CM286-9; ۞CmD vi 8/ ۞DoH21/ ۞DoL 1/ ۞FA ii 8/ ۞FD1/ ۞FG ii 17/ ۞FH16/ ۞Th 1/; bqDAw4; lute solo (PI 15-16v) PIv 19/ BB3; lute/t (BO 11v-12r 34), lute/kt D15; ۞BoD5/ ۞BreD2/ ۞Mf 11/ ۞Ld2; ۞BreF 18/ ۞CmD ix 1; ۞OD iv 3; rSS/AA/TB DAh 1/ SATTB DAb 1; rA+lute ۞EmH27; LU3; gDd 8/ Dj ii 1/ Dt 1; kMP66/ DF90-93/ MB lv 30; voice + lute DLe4;steps DF94-6; 1599 MORLEY setting à 6; bc M7; ۞BaW12/ ۞BreF18/ ۞CmD xi 12/ ۞EmR14/ ۞Sf4; kF153; BYRD setting kF121/ MB xxviii 54; ۞CmD v 17/ ۞Mo iv 12; SCHOP ۞Sf 14/ ۞Py 17; SWEELINCK ‘Pavana Lachrymae’ SWm 66; SWn10; ۞Ke23; rSATB Moeck 276; HOVE L soc C40; ۞OD v 12; EYCK ۞CmD vii 23/ ۞Wt 16; anon. nstrumental setting ۞CmD vii 15; as lute song ‘Flow my tears’ EL2: 48/ Df19/ PM ii 1/ EF16/ W iv 4/ FL i 2/ GR109-113; ۞Aw i 9/ ۞CmD ii 2/ ۞DeP21; M + g WS5. Cf Otto Mies ‘Dowland’s Lachrymae tune’ MD4 (1950) 59-64. HOLBORNE ‘Pavana ploravit’ is based on the tune (see 109a)
b) (B262): ‘Westron wynde when wylt thou blow?’ RA f5; facsimile BL ii 7; tune CW37/ C57-8; G33; CM413 ‘3 hautboys; setting by TAVERNER in HM112a
187-8 [My ingenious instrument! Hark Polydore, it sounds. But what occasion…Hark!] (AS223; AS (1955) 215/ NA214-5/ GPs ii 267) consort of viols. (OS273); perhaps conventional instruments combined and employed in an unusual way. Walker uses high sustained cello harmonic with low percussive rumble on piano strings played with timpani stick with melismatic sound on large glockenspiel with harp glissando.
236-241 [though now our voices Have got the mannish crack, sing him to th’ ground As once our mother; use like note and words…./ …I cannot sing, I’ll weep and word it with thee, For notes of sorrow out of tune are worse Than priests and fanes that lie. We’ll speak it then.]
253-4 [If you’ll go fetch him, We’ll say our song the whilst. Brother, begin] AS223/ SM44 i.e. sing with voice breaking
258-282 [So, begin.] Dirge [55]. Fear no more the heat o’ th’ sun, LF59-61/ OS274 text suggests spoken, not sung. See also detailed commentary in Seng p.224; AS 223-4. PS148-9/ NN64. Folio has the heading ‘Song’ implying music was added at performances between 1603-23 32
a) LF60: tune: Vater unser ‘Old 112th’ as used by George Wither for ‘Lullabie’ (1641) b) uCM51 adapted from 1601 ROSSETER ‘And would you see my mistress’ face?’ EL LS15 (i 8-9): 2/ WA iv 2; facsim EF36; rS+k HU10; gRZ ii 3
c) uFV19 ‘Fear no more the heat of the sun’ arr. W. Hawkins 1759; provenance?
d)(B262): Westron wynde (31b)
e) uDO141-2 melody set to ‘When griping grief’ (282)
f) GREAVES ‘Fear no more the heat of the sun’. lute song from ‘Songs of sundrie kindes’, c1604; ed by David Greer. Scholar press, 1971, vii; ۞Ph5;
V ii 0 (OS22) {A march}
iii 0 {Alarums. Excursions. The trumpets sound a retreat}
iv 0 {The trumpets sound a retreat}
` v 94 {Flourish}
123 Solemn music. Enter, as in an apparition,…with music before them. (31) 33
‘A spectacular theatrical interpolation. (Sir Edmund Chambers Shakespeare 1930, vol 1, p. 486). BR125 probably a *pavan suits this occasion. B262 i.e. musicians on stage; OS273-4: perhaps off-stage music sounds before entry and each pair of ghosts preceded by its own ghostly musicians (recorders/oboes + lute + s-dr./tabor. ALd 508: lines spoken against instrumental a musical background. The effect is to depersonalise the speaker, for the sound of the music blots out the individual timbre of his voice. See also GPd ii 170, who suggests viol consort, see also commenraty in AS (1955) xxxiii-xxxvii & 223/ AS (1998) 215, PS149 (2005) and NN66 (J M Nosworthy. Description also in BR84-6; TLS 15 vi 1922, p.396, while FU (1913) p. 374-8 summarises earlier commentary which is dismissive of this passage.
…Then, after other music, follow the two young Leonati… with wounds…
24-207 [No more, thou thunder-master… ] spoken above the music?LF63: hidden; probably recorder consort 34
a) LF64: 1599 HOLBORNE 3 pavans on SSATB recorders [J61, 21, 4]
i). à 5: H11/ H1026; rSSATB Hb ii 1; bq 2trumpets, 3 trombones Ha i 11; ۞W19
ii). à 5: H3/ H1022; cornetts and sackbuts ۞Q11; Hb i 3; rSATTB TD17; bq 2 trumpets, 3 trombones Ha i 3
iii). à 5: H15/ H1028; Hb i 15; rSAATB: Hp 3; à 4: rSAAB Hg 1; rA + k: BJ 4 bq 2trumpets, 3 trombones Ha i 15
b) (B263) DOWLAND Lachrymae pavan plucked strings – harp, dulcimer &c (31a)
186 Jupiter descends in thunder and lightening (LF64: kettledrums; OS274 possibly organ cf Tem III iii 98) 35
vi 0; 467-8 {Flourish}; [The fingers of the powers above do tune The harmony of this peace.]
486 {Flourish}; {Flourish} Exeunt {in triumph}

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