Shakespeare: Henry VIII (H8-24)

(With Fletcher and possibly Massinger) (CM97-8: 47 cues). Original subtitle was ‘All is true’. This is largely a pageant play, in the words of Herbert Beerbohm Tree (Introduction to Shakespeare, 1978). LH243, 261: musical extravagance: as many as 20-25 musicians required: trumpets; hautboy consort; broken consort, lutenist, solo singer and choir. Dent (151) specifies the use of hautboys, drum, trumpets, cornets and lute and notes the special requirement of the ‘Four Quirristers’ (see reference 77 below). Macmullen has some notes on the place of music in the play, AS (2000) App 6, pp. 458-61.

As a composer in his own right, the play bearing his name could perhaps justifiably feature some of the pieces attributed to the sovereign and those of his court musicians as represented in the so-called ‘Henry VIII ms.’ c.1518 which has as may as 33 pieces ascribed to the king himself. (MB xviii). Cf David Fallows ‘Henry VIII as composer’ in Chris Banks et al. Sundry sorts of music books: essays on the BL collections presented to Oliver Neighbour on his 70th birthday. BL, 1993, pp. 27-39. WT70 remarks that Henry’s prowess as a composer has often been exaggerated. ۞Al is a recording featuring 25 pieces from this repertoire.

act scene line Click here to find out more about suggested song
There is a small anthology (HE) containing six pieces so attributed edited by Carl Dolmetsch for rSAT including 3 consort fantasies, such that could perhaps follow the cue for a slow dance in I iv 106, (others occur in ۞Si 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 20, 24, 26, 31 & 34) 89 (104)
The Dolmetsch anthology includes a number of part songs (words provided):
a) ‘Without discord and both accord’ TTB MB xviii 64; ۞Al 6; S+rTB ۞Si 6; rSAT HE4; 90
b) ‘If love now reigned’ MB xviii 48; ۞Al 7/۞Si 32; rS/AT/AB Moeck 553; 91
and c) ‘Pastyme with good companye,’ a setting à 3, offering ‘a new contrapuntal context for a received melody’ (FH67): MB xviii 7/ MB xxxvi 12/ C56/ CW44-5/ K71; ۞A1 9; lute (RA f55) Md 1;
rS/AT; rSATB SR2; rS/A.A/TT RB30; rSAT HE2; rS/A + k DX4; ۞A1 9;۞CamP6/ ۞CwM1/ ۞EmH5/ ۞EnG 12 i/ ۞Ge12/ ۞Go4: 3a & 5b/ ۞MnF9 ii/ ۞OL 1/۞Si 12; as partsong with broken consort (treble rebec, shawm and curtal) ۞Sk10; school performance notes Sk34-5 WT71 notes that the tune seems to have been borrowed from a French theatrical chanson à 4 ‘De mon triste et deplaisir’ CM397-9 92
Another (untitled) consort fantasia from the Court of Henry VIII occurs in RC i 30 rSAT; 93
‘Green groweth the holly’ à 3 (RA33 f37v-38) N64-6 (SSS/A or TBarB voices) for use during the play. ATB: MB xviii 33; ۞Si 4; rAAT TE4; this and ‘Pastyme’ (90) Fallows singles out for their simplicity of means making astonishingly beautiful and memorable pieces (FH34) 94
‘The Kynges Pavyn’ (‘Kyng harry viijth pavyn’ à 3; à 4 Estrées 1559; Phalèse 1571 as ‘Pavane Les Quercarde’) WM ii 76/ MB lxvi App II 7a/ HEd3/ ESI 136-7; bq ۞Mt13; solo lute MB lxvi 7b; ۞MnF i-ii; regal solo ۞EmH 15 95
The BL Stowe ms 389 f121v-122 has another ‘The kinges pawvion’ WM ii 48/ LPM EML157. 95A
‘En vrai amour’ is an extremely gracious ‘balanced and dance-like’ piece MB xviii 81; ۞Hc1/ ۞Go 4: 5/ ۞MnF7ii/ ۞Mt12/ ۞Si 18/ ۞YC2; the original source a chanson à 5 is attributed to ALAMIRE 96
‘Taundernaken’ a setting à 3 (STB) of the Dutch folksong attributed to the King himself (RA f82r-84) MB xviii 78, pLPM 155; ۞Al 20/ ۞CwM5/ ۞Hc3/ ۞Si 22/ ۞YC3; also in versions à 3 (rATB) by OBRECHT and à 4 (rSTTB) by SENFL (Moeck 94-5). This, his most celebrated secular composition (MB xviii p107), David Fallows considers an extremely good and well planned piece reflecting the genius noted by all those who encountered him’ (FH28, 35) 97
‘It is to me a ryght great joy’ a round MB xviii 57; ۞Go4:1/ ۞Si 25; 98
Other useful collections are Elgar Howarth’s brass quintet arrangements of Henry’s pieces (HF) and 8 lute pieces included in an important ms. of Henry VIII’s time GB-Lbl Roy MS App.58 (RAl ). Two particularly affecting pieces are included in the Skeaping’s Tudor music enterprise, played with a consort of rebecs, one from the Royal ms., the moving elegy
‘And I were a maiden’ ۞Sk19; MB xviii 101; performance notes Sk46-47; 99
A lament from the Cancionero del Palacio. (Anglés La música en la Corte de los Reyes Catolicos. Barcelona 1947-5);۞Sk12 as ‘Katherine of Aragon’s song,’ here as ‘Cross the water’ performance notes Sk36-38. 100

It should perhaps be noted that the scenes attributed assuredly to Shakespeare (I i-ii, II iii-iv, III ii 1-204 & V i) do not provide opportunities for music, at least they do not bear music indications. Granville-Bantock (GP67) suggests the instrumentation: hautboys, drum, trumpets, cornets, lute. See Discography under ۞EmT, ۞Mn and ۞Mt for recordings devoted to music written during Henry’s reign. A useful summary of the music at Henry’s court is given in Lord ix-xi. The Boy and Queen Katherine’s waiting woman are the only named musicians in the play.

I ii 0 Cornetts (B244) could be sounded by two heralds
iii 41-6 [A French song and a fiddle has no fellow./ The devil fiddle ’em! I am glad they are going For sure there’s no converting of ’em now An honest country lord, as I am, beaten A long time out of play, may bring his *plain song And have an hour of hearing; and, by’r Lady, Held current music, too.] cf SS48 (1995) 135 on the seductive power of music
iv 0 Hautboys. Banquet scene. B244: sennet of cornets
LH244: (à 2: LM pt. 1: 3r, 58v) ‘The Humming bachelor’ {from a Beaumont 101
Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray’s Inn 1613} SA357; rA + k BJ15; also in k(Drexel 5612 p. 29) as ‘A Toy’ GE 7
35 Hautboys. B244: sennet of cornets
LH246: (à 2: LM pt 1: f 7v-8r, 62v ) ‘Stephen Thomas, his almaine:’ (Thomas 102
First almain) masque dance [treble and bass only SA374] [Note ‘his second almaine (à 2: LM pt 1: f 9r, 64r) SA378 was originally wrongly attributed to Bateman as ‘Allmand R. Bateman’ à 5 in BN23]
49 Drum and trumpets [within].; Chambers discharged. {announcing opening of the masque} (B244) prolonged trumpet blast and rapid rolling of side drums and single violent bangs on kettledrum
64 Hautboys. Enter… and others, as masquers, habited like shepherds 103
B244 panpipes or pipe and tabor
LH248: ‘The Ladies’ masque’ 1 [of 3 dances for a Jonson masque 1611] à 2: (LM14 f17 r, 71v-72 r) SA65/ LMw ii 3 with realization of basso; ۞Wt 18
75 The masquers choose ladies.
77-107 Music. They dance MM34 not trumpets or hautboys (BR135) *pavane, then *coranto or *volta 104
a) LH248-9: ‘The Shepherd’s masque’ suite of 3 dances, broken consort antimasque (LM66) (407a)
(23b i)
b) (B244) i) ARBEAU a *Branle double (pipe and tabor) ii) (B236) ARBEAU *Branle du Haut Barrois (pipe and tabor) ARe 136, 255 ARc119/ DF70 ; rAAAA; à 4 ARi 11; steps only B235-6
c) (B244-5): ‘The King’s *mask, lute
83 {He whispers with the masquers}
98-9 [I were unmannerly to take you out {to dance} And not to kiss you] cf Julia Sutton’s note (ARe 228) à-propos Arbeau’s description of the *gavotte which concludes the sequence of *branles, a dance which involves kissing
108-112 [Let’s be merry…and a *measure To lead ‘em once again; …Let the music knock it]. Exeunt with trumpets. *Processional 105
a) LH(250), 271 App. 1 no 6: ‘Le simple Cavalcot cantus pomposus’
a) ۞BroS30 ‘My Lord of Essex measure’ (in Estrée 1559 as ‘Tintelore d’Angleterre’) (LO) SA351/ (GB-Lcm 1115) DH47; kDB11; à 4 DBt 5/ CM33-5; steps NE iv45/ DF53-4/ DH46; ۞BroL9
a) Henry VIII Green growth the holly AT N64-5, SSS/A N65-6
II i (B245) bell tolling throughout at a distance
{54-55} Enter Buckingham from his arraignment (B245) *procession enters slowly to muffled drums
iv 0 Trumpets; sennet. Then cornetts. LH251; 276-80: Royal *flourish à 5 (trumpets) Sennet à 5 (cornetti)
III i {scene which some attribute to Fletcher rather than Shakespeare}
1-2 [Take thy lute, wench My soul grows sad with troubles Sing and disperse ‘em, if thou canst…]
3-14 Sings Orpheus with his lute made trees,…To his music plants and flowers Ever sprung… In sweet music is such art, Killing care and grief of heart…hearing die. 106
ALd 513 Auden notes ‘he can only think of this one case where it seems certain that a character listens to a song as a song should be listened to, instead of a stimulus to a petit roman of his own.’
a) LH254: 1606 BARTLET lute song EL ii 3: 7; fEF3: 7
b) uCM99-100 ‘Jon come kisse me now’ WM ii 139-140 (4 variants and keyboard reduction); as song with guitar N45-47; +rSATB + g/k; rSS/AA/T BE10; dance tune SB255; (LO 7 ii-7v ii); ‘The Antycke’ lute/k WM 140/ tLSoc B3/ BV4/ RS27; CW268-9/ N10/ ۞OH5; kSA214; gRZ i 9; BYRD opening 8 bars of kF10/ MB xxviii 81/ C147-8; ۞Mo ii 23/ ۞RoR5; rSAT SR14; cittern LSoc C31:2; as ‘The Buffens’ (Straloch lute book) PN3; (DY44, p.104/ DL3) SA216; Susato as a branle à 4 ‘Dans de Hercule oft maticine’ SU i 32; (Phalèse) WM ii 141/ Estrées/ Arbeau) ‘Parade des Bouffons’, or ‘Mattachins’. (Balcares ms. f54v); ۞BaW1/ ۞BroA8.v/ ۞Pb9; rSA/ TT/AB RC ii 29/ Heinrichshofen 1064; rSSATB TR12; rA CT30; EYCK ‘Bouffons’; tune and choreography ARe 187-194; steps DI iii 18; rSA ARd; à 4 ARi 7; 1553 ORTIZ Divisions, t-v DN lesson 8; b-v DN7; BULL kMB ix 100/ (kMPf58) ۞CamP13; RAVENSCROFT ‘Joan come kiss me now’ Rp22/ CB iii 5 ii. An alternatrive melody for Mattachins is given in Phalèse 1570 f79v WM ii 142
c) (B245) JOHNSON ‘Care-charming sleep’ (115c)
d) uDO289-91 set to the tune of ‘O mistress mine’; as lute song; ۞DO i 48 (344)
ii 281 [….and dare us with his cap like larks…]
IV i 35-6 Flourish of k. [The trumpets sound. Stand close. The Queen is coming].
Hautboys, within {play during the procession}
LH276-80 Trumpet flourish LH276-80: Sennet LH255: LH App IV 276-80
1. First, {enter} trumpeters, who play a lively flourish…
4. Then, enter choristers singing; {with them, musicians playing}…
LH255. not trumpets and oboes 107
a) (B245) William MUNDY ‘O Lord, the maker of all thing’ Treasury of English Church music, vol. 2/ C. Morris Oxford Book of Tudor Anthems 24/ separately OUP: TCM 38) (after original Latin setting ‘Rerum Creator Omnium’ ECCM 2)
b) LH256: TALLIS [Te Deum à 5 (SAATB)] Gloria Patri [GB-Lbl Add. MS 38539 f53v] accompanied by cornetti OUP: TCM72
c) (B245) Rex gloriose Martyrum G7 (Engl. transl. English hymnal 183) melody from Andernach Gesangbuch 1608 after VIc. Plainsong
d) (DLC) ALISON ‘Our Father which in Heaven art’ facsim EF1 (1968) Alison Psalms of David in metre 1599; ed. Ian Harwood p.[28]; ۞Ci 18
e) (DLC) ‘All people that on earth do dwell’ from Day’s Psalter, 1563 PE38; or DOWLAND setting of ‘The Old 100th’ in Ravenscroft Whole Book of Psalms 1621 ۞CmD vii 8; cf PD324-5 for comparison
(LH254): another sennet on hautboys here
{37-54} (B246) music dies down, swells again to fine crescendo, fading again on general exit
55 Exit the last of the procession, and then a great flourish of trumpets within 108
a) LH146, 255: 1638 FANTINI from Modo per imparare a sonare di tromba Entrata imperial (trumpets off stage)
b) (B245) FRANCK Intrada, Pavana & Tantz (Galliard) à 5 ed. rSSSAT Bergmann. sSchott 11833
92 [the choir, With all the choicest music of the kingdom, Together sang Te Deum.]
118 Exeunt. (B246) {Flourish}
ii 78-80 [Cause the musicians play me that sad note I named my *knell, whilst I sit meditating On that celestial harmony I go to].
Sad and solemn music cf ME216 (BR135) *pavane 109
a) LF58-9: 1599 HOLBORNE [J48] Pavana ploravit (after DOWLAND Lachrimae) H49/ H1044; rSSATB Hb ii 3; as lute pavan HB15 [the original and other settings and their instrumentation] (31a)
b) LH258-9: 1599 ALISON ‘Alison’s knell:’ pavane, bc M11; ۞BreF11/ ۞ChQ5
c) N108-9: ‘O death rock me asleep’ lute song (56a)
d) (DLC) ROBINSON 1603 ‘The Queen’s Goodnight’, 2 lutes LR41/ RS1/ NT ii 2; ۞ChQ8/ ۞L15/ ۞PaM19/ ۞W18
e) (DLC) FARNABY ‘Tower Hill’ kF245/ MB xxiv 26/ FAd5; ۞BroP4; ۞YF 13; gFAg 1; rA + g FAf 2 (cf V iv 61) [note that there is an anonymous Gigge closely resembling this Farnaby piece kDV1]
f) ‘O death rock me asleep’ (56a)
82-96 THE VISION. Enter, solemnly tripping… six personages clad in white robes… They first congé.,., then dance; (detailed description of movements follows) The music continues… [Bid the music leave, They are harsh and heavy to me.] Music ceases.
V iii 21-2 [I am not Samson, nor Sir Guy, nor Colbrand, To mow ’em down before me] DO 180-3; ۞DO ii 23; 1592 ballad ‘Sir Guy of Warwick’ (17 verses) with tune possibly related to ‘O mistress mine’ (cf 241) 110
79-81 *Flourish of trumpets within. [Hark, the trumpets sound. They’re come, already, from the christening.]
V iv 0; 4 Enter trumpeters, sounding;…{LH: Sennet and Royal}; Flourish.
MM49 trumpets sound alone for the first time LH: {Sennet and Royal} Flourish (B246) played softly (LH254): another sennet on hautboys here (108a/b) 111
34-6 [sing the merry songs of peace to all his neighbours]
62-64 [they are like to dance these three days, besides the running banquet of two beadles that is to come]
76 {Flourish} (B246) {Fanfare}

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